References Used to Develop Options: Pelvic Floor
Bazian Ltd. Stress incontinence. Clin Evid 2004;11:2543-57.
Dannecker C, Hillemanns P, Strauss A, Hasbargen U, Hepp H, Anthuber C. Episiotomy and perineal tears presumed to be imminent: randomized controlled trial. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 2004;83(4):364-8.
Eason E, Labrecque M, Wells G, Feldman P. Preventing perineal trauma during childbirth: a systematic review. Obstet Gynecol 2000;95:464-71.
Flynn P, Franiek J, Janssen P, Hannah WJ, Klein MC. How can second-stage management prevent perineal trauma? Can Fam Physician 1997;43:73-84.
Fraser WD, Marcoux S, Krauss I, Douglas J, Goulet C, Boulvain M., The PEOPLE (Pushing Early or Pushing Late with Epidural) Study Group. Multicenter, randomized, controlled trial of delayed pushing for nulliparous women in the second stage of labor with continuous epidural analgesia. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2000;182(5):1165-72.
Gupta JK, Hofmeyr GJ. Position for women during second stage of labour (Cochrane Review). In: The Cochrane Library Issue 4, 2004.
Harvey M-A. Pelvic floor exercises during and after pregnancy: a systematic review of their role in preventing pelvic floor dysfunction. J Obstet Gynaecol Can 2003;25(6):487-98.
Hay-Smith EJC, Bø K, Berghmans LCM, Hendriks HJM, de Bie RA, van Waalwijk van Doorn ESC. Pelvic floor muscle training for urinary incontinence. In: The Cochrane Library Issue 4, 2004.
Hodnett ED, Gates S, Hofmeyr G J, Sakala C. Continuous support for women during childbirth [PDF]. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2003, Issue 3. Art. No.: CD003766. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD003766.
Kettle C. Perineal care. Clin Evid 2004;11:1853-71.
Lieberman E, O'Donoghue C. Unintended effects of epidural analgesia: a systematic review. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2002;186(5 suppl):S31-68.
Childbirth Connection. Comparing risks of cesarean and vaginal birth to mothers, babies, and future reproductive capacity: a systematic review. New York: Childbirth Connection, April 2004. [The following study documents are available as PDF files from the Childbirth Connection website: description of methods and sources (including full bibiliography), list of main questions and outcomes (a table of contents for evidence tables), first file of evidence tables, and second file of evidence tables. Latter includes pelvic floor outcomes.]
McGuiness M, Norr K, Nacion K. Comparison between different perineal outcomes on tissue healing. J Nurse Midwifery 1991;36(3):192-8.
Murphy PA, Feiland JB. Perineal outcomes in a home birth setting. Birth 1998;25(4):226-34.
Renfrew MJ, Hannah W, Albers L, Floyd E. Practices that minimize trauma to the genital tract in childbirth: a systematic review of the literature. Birth 1998;25(3):143-60.
Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada, Clinical Practice Obstetrics Committee. Guidelines for operative vaginal birth. J Obstet Gynaecol Can 2004;26(8)747-53.
Thacker SB, Stroup B, Chang M. Continuous electronic heart rate monitoring for fetal assessment during labor (Cochrane Review). In: The Cochrane Library Issue 4, 2004.
Vendittelli F, Tabaste J-L, Janky E. Le massage périnéal ante-partum: revue des essais randomisés. J Gynecol Obstet Biol Reprod 2001;30(6):565-71.
Most recent page update: 2/27/2006
© 2013 Childbirth Connection. All rights reserved.
Childbirth Connection is a national not-for-profit organization founded in 1918 as Maternity Center Association. Our mission is to improve the quality and value of maternity care through consumer engagement and health system transformation. Childbirth Connection promotes safe, effective and satisfying evidence-based maternity care and is a voice for the needs and interests of childbearing families.
News and Features
Listening to MothersSM III is the third national survey exploring women’s experiences in pregnancy and childbirth. Commissioned by Childbirth Connection, conducted by Harris Interactive, and funded by the W.K. Kellogg Foundation, the survey polled 2,400 women who gave birth in U.S. hospitals from 2011 to 2012. Results show that medically intensive experiences are typical, and evidence-based practices are underutilized. Childbearing women need better support and knowledge to navigate their maternity care.
Access the full report and supplementary materials
New Report: Maternity Care and Liability
Go to report and supporting materials
New Report: The Cost of Having a Baby in the United States
Go to report and supporting materials
New Cesarean Resources:
Go to Best Evidence Report
Go to web pages and booklet for women
For 95 years, Childbirth Connection has been dedicated to improving the quality and value of maternity care for all women and their families. Learn more about our rich history through our interactive timeline and give $95 for 95 in honor of our 95th birthday.
Childbirth Connection works to ensure that all women and babies get the best possible maternity care. We have the collective vision and we know how to get there, but we can't do it alone. Join the transformation today.
The Transforming Maternity Care website focuses on maternity care system improvements designed to engage diverse stakeholders in quality improvement efforts. The site offers full access to the landmark reports 2020 Vision and Blueprint for Action, features a Blog, and other resources such as an Action Center, a database of quality improvement projects, an interactive data center, and many more tools for advocates and stakeholders.